Background: The appropriate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, including appropriate de-escalation, is essential to reduce the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In surgical floors antibiotics are prescribed for prophylaxis (mostly, single dose), empirical treatment (started if infection is suspected till bacteria are identified with its sensitivity to antibiotics), or treatment of well-defined infection of previously isolated bacteria with its sensitivity to antibiotics. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics based on requests for cultures and de-escalation based on sensitivity results of culture tests at tertiary care hospital. Method: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the utilization of broad-spectrum antibiotics on surgical floors at a tertiary care center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients who are admitted to surgical floors were included if they received any of three broad-spectrum antibiotics (piperacillin–tazobactam, imipenem–cilastatin or meropenem) from 1 June 2014 to 31 August 2014. Data were collected on whether culture and sensitivity test requests were made within 24 h of starting antibiotics, the duration of antibiotic therapy and the number of days to de-escalation after receiving culture and sensitivity results. Results: Of the 163 patients who received broad-spectrum antibiotics, culture tests were requested in 112. Before receiving culture results, one patient was discharged and one died. The results of culture tests justified continuation of broad-spectrum antibiotics in only 22 patients, whereas 24 showed no microbial growth in any culture. De-escalation was delayed >24 h after culture results became available in 33 out of 64 eligible patients. On the other hand, 51 patients continued receiving broad spectrum antibiotics without any culture test during the whole treatment course. Conclusion: The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in surgical floors at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia was largely unjustified by culture-test result. Interventions are needed to enforce culture and sensitivity test requests within 24 h of starting the broad spectrum antibiotics therapy with further follow up to ensure appropriate de-escalation and discontinuation whenever indicated.
Youssif, E., Aseeri, M., & Khoshhal, S. (2018). Retrospective evaluation of piperacillin–tazobactam, imipenem–cilastatin and meropenem used on surgical floors at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 11(4), 486–490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2017.09.001