Core of the Power-to-Gas (PtG) concept is the utilization of renewable electricity to produce hydrogen via water electrolysis. This hydrogen can be used directly as final energy carrier or can be converted to e.g. methane, synthesis gas, liquid fuels, electricity or chemicals. To integrate PtG into energy systems technical demonstration and systems integration is of mayor importance. In total 128 PtG research and demonstration projects are realized or already finished in Europe to analyze these issues by May 2018. Key of the review is the identification and assessment of relevant projects regarding their field of application, applied processes and technologies for electrolysis, type of methanation, capacity, location and year of commissioning. So far, main application for PtX is the injection of hydrogen or methane into the natural gas grid for storing electricity from variable renewable energy sources. Producing fuels for transport is another important application of PtX. In future PtX gets more important for refineries to lower the carbon food print of the products.
Wulf, C., Linßen, J., & Zapp, P. (2018). Review of power-to-gas projects in Europe. In Energy Procedia (Vol. 155, pp. 367–378). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2018.11.041