Background. Chronically depressed right ventricular (RV) function presents an unsolved therapeutic challenge in cardiac surgery. Despite recent advances in medical and surgical therapies, prognosis remains poor and patient's quality of life and mortality are frequently unacceptable. The aim of this study is to present the first clinical report and long-term results of RV dynamic cardiomyoplasty applied in patients with RV failure caused by isolated RV cardiomyopathies. Methods. Seven consecutive patients (5 males, 2 females; mean age, 40 ± 9 years; range, 15 to 63 years) from a series of 113 cardiomyoplasty procedures performed at Broussais and Pompidou Hospitals were evaluated. The mean duration of follow-up was 10 ± 3.5 years. All patients had predominant RV dysfunction, associated with tricuspid regurgitation in 6 patients. The cause of RV failure was arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (4 patients), ischemic (2 patients), and Uhl's disease (1 patient), and endomyocardial fibrosis (1 patient). Six patients were in preoperative New York Heart Association functional class III and 1 was in intermittent class III/IV. The mean preoperative ejection fraction (measured by isotopic technique) was 18% ± 5.7% for the right ventricle and 40% ± 13% for the left ventricle. Right ventricular dynamic cardiomyoplasty consists of wrapping the RV free walls with the left latissimus dorsi muscle flap. The distal part of the latissimus dorsi muscle is fixed to the diaphragm and then electrostimulated. Six patients required associated tricuspid valve surgery. Results. There were no perioperative deaths. The mean duration of follow-up was 10 ± 3.5 years. Six patients are alive with a remarkable quality of life, 4 are in New York Heart Association functional class I and 2 are in class II. One patient who was in New York Heart Association functional class II died in postoperative year 7 caused by stroke. At last follow-up, mean RV ejection fraction was 33% ± 11.8% and left ventricular ejection fraction was 52% ± 12.6%. Conclusions. The results of this long-term study demonstrate hemodynamic and functional improvements after RV cardiomyoplasty without perioperative mortality, no long-term malignant arrhythmias, and RV dysfunction related deaths. We believe that RV cardiomyoplasty, associated with tricuspid valve surgery when required, could be an effective treatment for severe RV failure. © 2003 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
Chachques, J. C., Argyriadis, P. G., Fontaine, G., Hebert, J. L., Frank, R. A., D’Attellis, N., … Carpentier, A. F. (2003). Right ventricular cardiomyoplasty: 10-Year follow-up. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 75(5), 1464–1468. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-4975(02)04823-3