The Risk of Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues and Its Association with Pesticide Application Practices among Vegetable Farmers in Arusha, Tanzania

  • Kiwango P
  • Kassim N
  • Kimanya M
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Abstract

This study was conducted to assess dietary exposure to pesticide residues and pesticide application practices leading to the presence of these residues among vegetable farmers in Arusha, Tanzania. Face-to-face interviews using semi-structured questionnaires (including 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire techniques) were conducted to collect information on pesticide application practices and vegetable consumption, from 76 farmers. A sample of ready-to-eat vegetables was collected from each farmer's household to determine the level of pesticide residues. Pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopyA deterministic approach was used to assess dietary exposure to pesticide residues. Among the analyzed samples, 31.4% contained detectable levels of organophosphate residues. The detected organophosphates were dimethoate (mean, 8.56 mg kg-1), acephate (mean, 2.9 mg kg-1), profenofos (mean, 8.44 mg kg-1), dichlorvos (mean, 20.8 mg kg-1) and malathion (mean, 5.47 mg kg-1). The mean exposure for dimethoate (0.0021 mg kg-1 body weight (wt) day‑1 was higher than its corresponding acceptable daily intakes of 0.002 mg kg-1bwd‑1 resulting in hazard quotient of 1.044 with a consequent hazard index of 1.19 for organophosphates. Pyrethroid pesticides (permethrin, cypermethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin) were also detected but at a lower frequency (17.1%) and hazard index (0.029). The exposure to pesticide residues was significantly associated with limited access to expert advice on pesticide application (p=0.031, adjusted odds ratio=6.56) and over-dosage (p=0.038, adjusted odds ratio=3.751).The risk may be minimized by increasing access to support by extension service providing guidance on good practices and ensuring application of appropriate doses for pesticides.

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APA

Kiwango, P. A., Kassim, N., & Kimanya, M. E. (2018). The Risk of Dietary Exposure to Pesticide Residues and Its Association with Pesticide Application Practices among Vegetable Farmers in Arusha, Tanzania. Journal of Food Research, 7(2), 86. https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v7n2p86

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