Tissue microarray (TMA) is a high throughput analysis tool to identify new diagnostic and prognostic markers in human cancers. However, standard automated method in tumour detection on both routine histochemical and immunohistochemistry (IHC) images is under developed. This paper presents a robust automated tumour cell segmentation model which can be applied to both routine histochemical tissue slides and IHC slides and deal with finer pixel-based segmentation in comparison with blob or area based segmentation by existing approaches. The presented technique greatly improves the process of TMA construction and plays an important role in automated IHC quantification in biomarker analysis where excluding stroma areas is critical. With the finest pixel-based evaluation (instead of area-based or object-based), the experimental results show that the proposed method is able to achieve 80% accuracy and 78% accuracy in two different types of pathological virtual slides, i.e., routine histochemical H&E and IHC images, respectively. The presented technique greatly reduces labor-intensive workloads for pathologists and highly speeds up the process of TMA construction and provides a possibility for fully automated IHC quantification.
Wang, C. W. (2011). Robust automated tumour segmentation on histological and immunohistochemical tissue images. PLoS ONE, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0015818