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Abstract

A systematic study of the role of KCl on the electrodeposition of<br />ZnO nanowire arrays from the reduction of oxygen in ZnCl2 solutions<br />was performed. Besides its role as a supporting electrolyte, other<br />major effects were found. An increase of KCl concentration ([KCl])<br />considerably decreased the rate of O2 reduction. The consequent decrease<br />in OH- production rate resulted in an augmentation of the ZnO deposition<br />efficiency, from a value around 3% for [KCl] = 5 ? 10-2 M to more<br />than 40% for [KCl] = 3.4 M. The increase of the deposition efficiency<br />mainly resulted in an enhancement of the longitudinal growth rate.<br />However, high [KCl] (>1 M) also favored the lateral growth of the<br />ZnO nanowires, resulting in diameters as big as 300 nm (in comparison<br />to the diameter of 80 nm obtained for [KCl] < 1 M). The observed<br />effects were discussed in terms of Cl- ion adsorption on the cathode<br />surface. The possible preferential adsorption of the anion on the<br />(0001) ZnO surface was emphasized. Transmission electron microscopy<br />revealed that the ZnO nanowires were single crystals, irrespective<br />of [KCl] in the electrolyte. Thus, playing with the chloride content<br />in the solution is an interesting way to obtain ZnO single-crystal<br />nanowire arrays with tailored dimensions under controlled deposition<br />rates. The influence of the nanowire dimensions on the optical properties<br />was also discussed, showing the interest of this study in the frame<br />of nanostructured solar cells.<br /><br />A systematic study of the role of KCl on the electrodeposition of<br />ZnO nanowire arrays from the reduction of oxygen in ZnCl2 solutions<br />was performed. Besides its role as a supporting electrolyte, other<br />major effects were found. An increase of KCl concentration ([KCl])<br />considerably decreased the rate of O2 reduction. The consequent decrease<br />in OH- production rate resulted in an augmentation of the ZnO deposition<br />efficiency, from a value around 3% for [KCl] = 5 ? 10-2 M to more<br />than 40% for [KCl] = 3.4 M. The increase of the deposition efficiency<br />mainly resulted in an enhancement of the longitudinal growth rate.<br />However, high [KCl] (>1 M) also favored the lateral growth of the<br />ZnO nanowires, resulting in diameters as big as 300 nm (in comparison<br />to the diameter of 80 nm obtained for [KCl] < 1 M). The observed<br />effects were discussed in terms of Cl- ion adsorption on the cathode<br />surface. The possible preferential adsorption of the anion on the<br />(0001) ZnO surface was emphasized. Transmission electron microscopy<br />revealed that the ZnO nanowires were single crystals, irrespective<br />of [KCl] in the electrolyte. Thus, playing with the chloride content<br />in the solution is an interesting way to obtain ZnO single-crystal<br />nanowire arrays with tailored dimensions under controlled deposition<br />rates. The influence of the nanowire dimensions on the optical properties<br />was also discussed, showing the interest of this study in the frame<br />of nanostructured solar cells.

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Tena-Zaera, R., Elias, J., Wang, G., & Lévy-Clément, C. (2007). Role of chloride ions on electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanowire arrays from O2 reduction. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 111(45), 16706–16711. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp073985g

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