Role of maternal health and infant inflammation in nutritional and neurodevelopmental outcomes of two-year-old Bangladeshi children

  • J.R. D
  • H. C
  • M. A
  • et al.
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Abstract

Background: Previous studies have shown maternal, inflammatory, and socioeconomic variables to be associated with growth and neurodevelopment in children from low-income countries. However, these outcomes are multifactorial and work describing which predictors most strongly influence them is lacking. Methodology/Principal findings: We conducted a longitudinal study of Bangladeshi children from birth to two years to assess oral vaccine efficacy. Variables pertaining to maternal and perinatal health, socioeconomic status, early childhood enteric and systemic inflammation, and anthropometry were collected. Bayley-III neurodevelopmental assessment was conducted at two years. As a secondary analysis, we employed hierarchical cluster and random forests techniques to identify and rank which variables predicted growth and neurodevelopment. Cluster analysis demonstrated three distinct groups of predictors. Mother's weight and length-for-age Z score (LAZ) at enrollment were the strongest predictors of LAZ at two years. Cognitive score on Bayley-III was strongly predicted by weight-for-age (WAZ) at enrollment, income, and LAZ at enrollment. Top predictors of language included Rotavirus vaccination, plasma IL 5, sCD14, TNFalpha, mother's weight, and male gender. Motor function was best predicted by fecal calprotectin, WAZ at enrollment, fecal neopterin, and plasma CRP index. The strongest predictors for social-emotional score included plasma sCD14, income, WAZ at enrollment, and LAZ at enrollment. Based on the random forests' predictions, the estimated percentage of variation explained was 35.4% for LAZ at two years, 34.3% for DELTALAZ, 42.7% for cognitive score, 28.1% for language, 40.8% for motor, and 37.9% for social-emotional score. Conclusions/Significance: Birth anthropometry and maternal weight were strong predictors of growth while enteric and systemic inflammation had stronger associations with neurodevelopment. Birth anthropometry was a powerful predictor for all outcomes. These data suggest that further study of stunting in low-income settings should include variables relating to maternal and prenatal health, while investigations focusing on neurodevelopmental outcomes should additionally target causes of systemic and enteric inflammation.Copyright © 2018 Donowitz et al. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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J.R., D., H., C., M., A., F., T., M., K., E.R., C., … Petri W.A.  AO  - Donowitz  William A. Jr.; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7268-1218, J. R. ; O. http://orcid. org/0000-0003-4816-4728 A. O.-P. (2018). Role of maternal health and infant inflammation in nutritional and neurodevelopmental outcomes of two-year-old Bangladeshi children. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 12(5), e0006363. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006363

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