© 2016 Furfaro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.The activation of Nrf2 has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in cancer cell resistance to different anticancer therapies. The inhibition of proteasome activity has been proposed as a chemosensitizing therapy but the activation of Nrf2 could reduce its efficacy. Using the highly chemoresistant neuroblastoma cells HTLA-230, here we show that the strong reduction in proteasome activity, obtained by using low concentration of bortezomib (BTZ, 2.5 nM), fails in reducing cell viability. BTZ treatment favours the binding of Nrf2 to the ARE sequences in the promoter regions of target genes such as heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), the modulatory subunit of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLM) and the transporter for cysteine (x-CT), enabling their transcription. GSH level is also increased after BTZ treatment. The upregulation of Nrf2 target genes is responsible for cell resistance since HO-1 silencing and GSH depletion synergistically decrease BTZ-treated cell viability. Moreover, cell exposure to all-trans-Retinoic acid (ATRA, 3 μM) reduces the binding of Nrf2 to the ARE sequences, decreases HO-1 induction and lowers GSH level increasing the efficacy of bortezomib. These data suggest the role of Nrf2, HO-1 and GSH as molecular targets to improve the efficacy of low doses of bortezomib in the treatment of malignant neuroblastoma.
Furfaro, A. L., Piras, S., Domenicotti, C., Fenoglio, D., De Luigi, A., Salmona, M., … Nitti, M. (2016). Role of Nrf2, HO-1 and GSH in neuroblastoma cell resistance to bortezomib. PLoS ONE, 11(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152465