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REVIEW<br />High-efficiency light-emitting diodes emitting amber, green, blue, and ultraviolet light have been obtained through the use of an InGaN active layer instead of a GaN active layer. The localized energy states caused by In composition fluctuation in the InGaN active layer are related to the high efficiency of the InGaN-based emitting devices. The blue and green InGaN quantum-well structure light-emitting diodes with luminous efficiencies of 5 and 30 lumens per watt, respectively, can be made despite the large number of threading dislocations (1 × 108 to 1 × 1012 cm−2). Epitaxially laterally overgrown GaN on sapphire reduces the number of threading dislocations originating from the interface of the GaN epilayer with the sapphire substrate. InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes formed on the GaN layer above the SiO2 mask area can have a lifetime of more than 10,000 hours. Dislocations increase the threshold current density of the laser diodes.




Nakamura, S. (1998). The {Roles} of {Structural} {Imperfections} in {InGaN}-{Based} {Blue} {Light}-{Emitting} {Diodes} and {Laser} {Diodes}. Science, 281(5379), 956–961. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.281.5379.956

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