© 2018 Gómez-Rial et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Introduction Salivary glands are known immune effector sites and considered to be part of the whole mucosal immune system. The aim of the present study was to assess the salivary immune response to rotavirus (RV) infection through the analysis of the cytokine immune profile in saliva. Material and methods A prospective comparative study of serial saliva samples from 27 RV-infected patients (sampled upon admission to the hospital during acute phase and at convalescence–i.e. at least three months after recovery) and 36 healthy controls was performed. Concentrations of 11 salivary cytokines (IFN-γ, IFN-α2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL12p70, TNF-α, IFN-λ1, IL-22) were determined. Cytokine levels were compared between healthy controls acute infection and convalescence. The correlation between clinical data and salivary cytokine profile in infected children was assessed. Results The salivary cytokine profile changes significantly in response to acute RV infection. In RV-infected patients, IL-22 levels were increased in the acute phase with respect to convalescence (P-value < 0.001). Comparisons between infected and control group showed significant differences in salivary IFN-α2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-22. Although acute-phase levels of IL-12, IL-10, IL-6 and IFN-γ showed nominal association with Vesikari’s severity, this trend did not reach statistical significance after multiple test adjustment. Conclusions RV infection induces a host salivary immune response, indicating that immune mucosal response to RV infection is not confined to the intestinal mucosa. Our data point to a whole mucosal implication in the RV infection as a result of the integrative mucosal immune response, and suggest the salivary gland as effector site for RV infection.
Gómez-Rial, J., Curras-Tuala, M. J., Rivero-Calle, I., Rodríguez-Tenreiro, C., Redondo-Collazo, L., Gómez-Carballa, A., … Martinón-Torres, F. (2018). Rotavirus intestinal infection induces an oral mucosa cytokine response. PLoS ONE, 13(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195314