Rough titanium oxide coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation causes down-regulation of hTERT expression, molecular presentation, and cytokine secretion in tumor Jurkat T cells

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Abstract

The response of the human Jurkat T cell leukemia-derived cell line (Jurkat T cells) after 24 h of in vitro exposure to a titanium substrate (12 × 12 × 1 mm3) with a bilateral rough (Ra = 2.2-3.7 μm) titanium oxide coating (rTOC) applied using the micro-arc method in a 20% orthophosphoric acid solution was studied. A 1.5-fold down-regulation of hTERT mRNA expression and decreases in CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD95 presentation and IL-4 and TNFα secretion were observed. Jurkat T cell inactivation was not correlated with the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was not mediated by TiO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of 14 ± 8 nm at doses of 1 mg/L or 10 mg/L. The inhibitory effect of the rTOC (Ra = 2.2-3.7 μm) on the survival of Jurkat T cells (Spearman's coefficient rs = -0.95; n = 9; p < 0.0001) was demonstrated by an increase in the necrotic cell count among the cell population. In turn, an elevation of the Ra index of the rTOC was accompanied by a linear increase (r = 0.6; p < 0.000001, n = 60) in the magnitude of the negative electrostatic potential of the titanium oxide surface. Thus, the roughness of the rTOC induces an electrostatic potential and decreases the viability of the immortalized Jurkat T cells through mechanisms unrelated to ROS generation. This may be useful for replacement surgery applications of rough TiO2 implants in cancer patients.

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Khlusov, I., Litvinova, L., Shupletsova, V., Khaziakhmatova, O., Melashchenko, E., Yurova, K., … Sharkeev, Y. (2018). Rough titanium oxide coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation causes down-regulation of hTERT expression, molecular presentation, and cytokine secretion in tumor Jurkat T cells. Materials, 11(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11030360

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