The determination of atom positions from atomically resolved transmission electron micrographs is fundamental for the analysis of crystal defects and strain. In recent years annular bright-field (ABF) imaging has become a popular imaging technique owing to its ability to map both light and heavy elements. Contrast formation in ABF is partially governed by the phase of the electron wave, which renders the technique more sensitive to the tilt of the electron beam with respect to the crystal zone axis than high-angle annular dark-field imaging. Here we show this sensitivity experimentally and use image simulations to quantify this effect. This is essential for error estimation in future quantitative ABF studies.
Zhou, D., Müller-Caspary, K., Sigle, W., Krause, F. F., Rosenauer, A., & van Aken, P. A. (2016). Sample tilt effects on atom column position determination in ABF-STEM imaging. Ultramicroscopy, 160, 110–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2015.10.008