© 2016 Marinho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Background Previous studies have demonstrated that S. mansoni infection and inoculation of the parasite eggs and antigens are able to modulate airways inflammation induced by OVA in mice. This modulation was associated to an enhanced production of interleukin-10 and to an increased number of regulatory T cells. The S. mansoni schistosomulum is the first stage to come into contact with the host immune system and its tegument represents the host-parasite interface. The schistosomula tegument (Smteg) has never been studied in the context of modulation of inflammatory disorders, although immune evasion mechanisms take place in this phase of infection to guarantee the persistence of the parasite in the host. Methodology and Principal Findings The aim of this study was to evaluate the Smteg ability to modulate inflammation in an experimental airway inflammation model induced by OVA and to characterize the immune factors involved in this modulation. To achieve the objective, BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with OVA aerosol after Smteg intraperitoneal inoculation. Protein extravasation and inflammatory cells were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage and IgE levels were measured in serum. Additionally, lungs were excised for histopathological analyses, cytokine measurement and characterization of the cell populations. Inoculation with Smteg led to a reduction in the protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and eosinophils in both BAL and lung tissue. In the lung tissue there was a reduction in inflammatory cells and collagen deposition as well as in IL-5, IL-13, IL-25 and CCL11 levels. Additionally, a decrease in specific anti-OVA IgE levels was observed. The reduction observed in these inflammatory parameters was associated with increased levels of IL-10 in lung tissues. Furthermore, Smteg/asthma mice showed high percentage of CD11b+F4/ 80+IL-10+and CD11c+CD11b+IL-10+cells in lungs. Conclusion Taken together, these findings demonstrate that S. mansoni schistosomula tegument can modulates experimental airway inflammation.
Marinho, F. V., Alves, C. C., De Souza, S. C., Da Silva, C. M. G., Cassali, G. D., Oliveira, S. C., … Fonseca, C. T. (2016). Schistosoma mansoni Tegument (Smteg) Induces IL-10 and modulates experimental airway inflammation. PLoS ONE, 11(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160118