Individual environmental factors, such as iron, temperature and oxygen, are known to have a profound effect on bacterial phenotype. Therefore, it is surprising so little known is about the influence of chemically complex cigarette smoke on bacterial physiology. Recent evidence has demonstrated that tobacco smoke and components alter the bacterial surface and promote biofilm formation in several important human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Klebsiella pneumonia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and the relevance to increased susceptibility to infectious disease in smokers and to treatment are reviewed.
Hutcherson, J. A., Scott, D. A., & Bagaitkar, J. (2015). Scratching the surface - Tobacco-induced bacterial biofilms. Tobacco Induced Diseases. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12971-014-0026-3