© 2015 Banaszak et al. This study offers a new perspective on the evolutionary patterns of cities or urban agglomerations. Such developments can range from chaotic to fully ordered. We demonstrate that in a dynamic space of interactive human behaviour cities produce a wealth of gravitational attractors whose size and shape depend on the resistance of space emerging inter alia from transport friction costs. This finding offers original insights into the complex evolution of spatial systems and appears to be consistent with the principles of central place theory known from the spatial sciences and geography. Our approach is dynamic in nature and forms a generalisation of hierarchical principles in geographic space.
Banaszak, M., Dziecielski, M., Nijkamp, P., & Ratajczak, W. (2015). Self-organisation in spatial systems - From fractal chaos to regular patterns and vice versa. PLoS ONE, 10(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136248