The temperature sensitivity of the WRF model to changes in Total Solar Irradiance (TSI). The simulations were performed for a region centered over the North Atlantic Ocean, including portions of Eastern North America, Western Europe and Northwest Africa. Four simulations were run with different TSI values. Also, a fifth simulation was performed in which we varied the initial atmospheric conditions, in order to compare the effect on the temperature of both, changes in the TSI and initial atmospheric conditions. Comparing temperature monthly averages we found that changes in TSI and in the initial conditions have a measurable impact on temperature in the region of study. The sensitivity of the model using non-dimensional parameters was also estimated. The numerical experiments show some features that might allow to distinguish between the effects on the temperature due to changes in TSI from those caused by initial conditions. However, TSI changes are of the same order of magnitude than those of disturbances in the initial conditions. We also found that the mean monthly values of temperature over the full grid, did not present significant variations due to changes of either initial conditions or TSI.
Cipagauta, C., Mendoza, B., & Zavala-Hidalgo, J. (2014). Sensitivity of the surface temperature to changes in total solar irradiance calculated with the WRF model. Geofisica Internacional, 53(2), 153–162. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7169(14)71497-7