In a construct containing a GUS reporter gene driven by the 5′ regulatory elements from rubi3, expression was enhanced 4-fold when a 20-nucleotide (nt) GUS 5′ untranslated sequence was replaced with 9 nt sequences derived from rubi3′s second exon. The roles of the sequences immediately upstream from the GUS translation initiation codon, and their significance in gene expression, were investigated. Sequence analysis suggests that complementarity between sequences immediately 5′ of a translation initiation codon and the rice 17S rRNA may be responsible for the reduction in protein levels from constructs containing the GUS leader sequence. The results demonstrate an affect sequences immediately upstream from transgenic coding sequences have on expression, and when using the rubi3 5′ regulatory sequence in particular. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sivamani, E., Starmer, J. D., & Qu, R. (2009). Sequence analysis of rice rubi3 promoter gene expression cassettes for improved transgene expression. Plant Science, 177(6), 549–556. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2009.08.006