In the adult mammalian forebrain, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), also known as NG2 glia are distributed ubiquitously throughout the gray and white matter. They remain proliferative and continuously generate myelinating oligodendrocytes throughout life. In response to a demyelinating insult, OPCs proliferate rapidly and differentiate into oligodendrocytes which contribute to myelin repair. In addition to OPCs, neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) also contribute to remyelinating oligodendrocytes, particularly in demyelinated lesions in the vicinity of the SVZ, such as the corpus callosum. To determine the relative contribution of local OPCs and NSC-derived cells toward myelin repair, we performed genetic fate mapping of OPCs and NSCs and compared their ability to generate oligodendrocytes after acute demyelination in the corpus callosum created by local injection of α-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). We have found that local OPCs responded rapidly to acute demyelination, expanded in the lesion within seven days, and produced oligodendrocytes by two weeks after lesioning. By contrast, NSC-derived NG2 cells did not significantly increase in the lesion until four weeks after demyelination and generated fewer oligodendrocytes than parenchymal OPCs. These observations suggest that local OPCs could function as the primary responders to repair acutely demyelinated lesion, and that NSCs in the SVZ contribute to repopulating OPCs following their depletion due to oligodendrocyte differentiation.
Serwanski, D., Rasmussen, A., Brunquell, C., Perkins, S., & Nishiyama, A. (2018). Sequential Contribution of Parenchymal and Neural Stem Cell-Derived Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells toward Remyelination. Neuroglia, 1(1), 8. https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010008