Background: Cytoplasmic dynein motility along microtubules is critical for diverse cellular processes ranging from vesicular transport to nuclear envelope breakdown to mitotic spindle alignment. In yeast, we have proposed a regulated-offloading model to explain how dynein motility drives microtubule sliding along the cortex, powering transport of the nucleus into the mother-bud neck [1, 2]: The dynein regulator She1 limits dynein offloading by gating the recruitment of dynactin to the astral microtubule plus end, a prerequisite for offloading to the cortex. However, whether She1 subsequently affects cortically anchored dynein activity during microtubule sliding is unclear. Results: Using single-molecule motility assays, we show that She1 strongly inhibits dynein movement along microtubules, acting directly on the motor domain in a manner independent of dynactin. She1 has no effect on the motility of either Kip2, a kinesin that utilizes the same microtubule track as dynein, or human kinesin-1, demonstrating the specificity of She1 for the dynein motor. At single-molecule resolution, She1 binds tightly to and exhibits diffusional behavior along microtubules. Diffusive She1 collides with and pauses motile dynein motors, prolonging their attachment to the microtubule. Furthermore, Aurora B/Ipl1 directly phosphorylates She1, and this modification appears to enhance the diffusive behavior of She1 along microtubules and its potency against dynein. In cells, She1 dampens productive microtubule-cortex interactions specifically in the mother compartment, polarizing spindle movements toward the bud cell. Conclusions: Our data reveal how inhibitory microtubule-associated proteins selectively regulate motor activity to achieve unidirectional nuclear transport and demonstrate a direct link between cell-cycle machinery and dynein pathway activity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Markus, S. M., Kalutkiewicz, K. A., & Lee, W. L. (2012). She1-mediated inhibition of dynein motility along astral microtubules promotes polarized spindle movements. Current Biology, 22(23), 2221–2230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.10.017