Suberin and waxes embedded in the suberin polymer are key compounds in the control of transpiration in the tuber periderm of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Suberin is a cell-wall biopolymer with aliphatic and aromatic domains. The aliphatic suberin consists of a fatty acid polyester with esterified ferulic acid, which is thought to play an important role in cross-linking to the aromatic domain. In potato, ferulic acid esters are also the main components of periderm wax. How these ferulate esters contribute to the periderm water barrier remains unknown. Here we report on a potato gene encoding a fatty omega-hydroxyacid/fatty alcohol hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (FHT), and study its molecular and physiological relevance in the tuber periderm by means of a reverse genetic approach. In FHT RNAi periderm, the suberin and its associated wax contained much smaller amounts of ferulate esters, in agreement with the in vitro ability of the FHT enzyme to conjugate ferulic acid with omega-hydroxyacid and fatty alcohols. FHT down-regulation did not affect the typical suberin lamellar ultrastructure but had significant effects on the anatomy, sealing properties and maturation of the periderm. The tuber skin became thicker and russeted, water loss was greatly increased, and maturation was prevented. FHT deficiency also induced accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic acid amides feruloyl and caffeoyl putrescine in the periderm. We discuss these results in relation to the role attributed to ferulates in suberin molecular architecture and periderm impermeability.
Ratkovich, N., Zuluaga, L., Naranjo, L., Svojitka, J., Wintgens, T., & Rodriguez, M. (2015). Simulación en CFD de un BioReactor de Membrana Anaeróbico para tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales. Revista de Ingeniería, 0(42), 23. https://doi.org/10.16924/riua.v0i42.702