Activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is associated with carcinogenesis, but its contribution to smoking-associated lung carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Here we show that a tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) activation via β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) is crucial for smoking-associated lung carcinogenesis. Treatment with NNK stimulated the IGF-1R signaling pathway in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was suppressed by pharmacological or genomic blockade of β-AR and the downstream signaling including a Gβγ subunit of β-AR and phospholipase C (PLC). Consistently, β-AR agonists led to increased IGF- 1R phosphorylation. The increase in IGF2 transcription via β-AR, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was associated with NNK-induced IGF-1R activation. Finally, treatment with β-AR antagonists suppressed the acquisition of transformed phenotypes in lung epithelial cells and lung tumor formation in mice. These results suggest that blocking β-ARmediated IGF-1R activation can be an effective strategy for lung cancer prevention in smokers.
Min, H. Y., Boo, H. J., Lee, H. J., Jang, H. J., Yun, H. J., Hwang, S. J., … Lee, H. Y. (2016). Smoking-associated lung cancer prevention by blockade of the beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated insulin-like growth factor receptor activation. Oncotarget, 7(43), 70936–70947. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.12342