In the past decades, sub-pixel mapping algorithms have been extensively developed due to the large number of different applications. However, most of the sub-pixel mapping algorithms are based on single-temporal images, and the results are usually compromised without auxiliary information due to the ill-posed problem of sub-pixel mapping. In this paper, a novel spatial-temporal sub-pixel mapping algorithm based on swarm intelligence theory is proposed for multitemporal remote sensing imagery. Swarm intelligence theory involves clonal selection sub-pixel mapping (CSSM), which evolves the solution by emulating the biological advantage of the human immune system, and differential evolution sub-pixel mapping (DESM), which optimizes the solution by intelligent operations and heuristic searching in the solution pool. In addition, considering the under-determined problem of sub-pixel mapping, the spatial-temporal sub-pixel mapping method is used to obtain the distribution information at a fine spatial resolution from the bitemporal image pair, which exactly regularizes the ill-posed problem. Furthermore, the short-interval temporal information and the fine spatial distribution information within the bitemporal image pair can be integrated for further use, such as timely and detailed land-cover change detection (LCCD). To verify the validation of the swarm intelligence theory based spatial-temporal sub-pixel mapping algorithm, the proposed algorithm was compared with several traditional sub-pixel mapping algorithms, in both synthetic and real image experiments. The experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional approaches, achieving a better sub-pixel mapping result both qualitatively and quantitatively, as well as improving the subsequent LCCD performance.
He, D., Zhong, Y., Feng, R., & Zhang, L. (2016). Spatial-temporal sub-pixel mapping based on swarm intelligence theory. Remote Sensing, 8(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8110894