During the last years in spine surgery has become more urgent the need for a safe method to improve pedicle screw placement. A safe and correct placement can have many important consequences, both clinical (development of new symptoms) and medico-legal. The most widespread and used tool is neuronavigation. In literature, many studies have compared the precision of screw placement between free-hand, fluoroscopic guided technique and neuronavigation.
Cristina Mancarella, A. L., & Roberto Delfini, F. G. (2015). Spinal Neuronavigation and 3D-Printed Tubular Guide for Pedicle Screw Placement: A Really New Tool to Improve Safety and Accuracy of the Surgical Technique? Journal of Spine, 04(05). https://doi.org/10.4172/2165-7939.1000e118