Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in decompensated cirrhotic patients develops when bacteria invade preexisting ascites. It is probable that other transudates such as pleural effusions can be infected in a similar manner. This paper describes a cirrhotic patient with long-standing pleural effusion in whom Escherichia coli caused a spontaneous bacterial empyema. The ascitic fluid was sterile. © 1976, The Williams & Wilkins Co.. All rights reserved.
Flaum, M. A. (1976). Spontaneous Bacterial Empyema in Cirrhosis. Gastroenterology, 70(3), 416–417. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(76)80157-6