Epidermal keratinocytes with atopic dermatitis (AD) overproduce mediators such as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which are associated with pathology of AD. We found that peptidoglycan (PGN) of Staphylococcus aureus, which is frequently observed in lesion with AD, induced the production of numerous mediators such as GM-CSF and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted. Moreover, PGN phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which were involved in the induction of GM-CSF expression. These results suggested that PGN of S. aureus directly exacerbates inflammation of inflammatory skin disease. © 2004 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Matsubara, M., Harada, D., Manabe, H., & Hasegawa, K. (2004). Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan stimulates granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production from human epidermal keratinocytes via mitogen-activated protein kinases. FEBS Letters, 566(1–3), 195–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2004.04.028