First-generation gene signatures that identify breast cancer patients at risk of recurrence are confined to estrogen-positive cases and are driven by genes involved in the cell cycle and proliferation. Previously we induced sets of stromal genes that are prognostic for both estrogen-positive and estrogen-negative samples. Creating risk-management tools that incorporate these stromal signatures, along with existing proliferation-based signatures and established clinicopathological measures such as lymph node status and tumor size, should better identify women at greatest risk for metastasis and death.
Mefford, D., & Mefford, J. (2012). Stromal genes add prognostic information to proliferation and histoclinical markers: A basis for the next generation of breast cancer gene signatures. PLoS ONE, 7(6). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037646