Haem-copper oxidases are the last components of the respiratory chains in aerobic organisms. These membrane-bound enzymes energetically couple the electron transfer (eT) reactions associated with reduction of dioxygen to water, to proton pumping across the membrane. Even though the mechanism of proton pumping at the molecular level still remains to be uncovered, recent progress has presented us with the structural features of the pumping machinery and detailed information about the eT and proton-transfer reactions associated with the pumping process. © 2004 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Namslauer, A., & Brzezinski, P. (2004). Structural elements involved in electron-coupled proton transfer in cytochrome c oxidase. In FEBS Letters (Vol. 567, pp. 103–110). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2004.04.027