© 2017 Teder et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Two highly identical fusion proteins, an allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase (AOS-LOX) and a hydroperoxide lyase-lipoxygenase (HPL-LOX), were identified in the soft coral Capnella imbricata. Both enzymes initially catalyze the formation of 8R-hydroperoxy-eicosate-traenoic acid (8R-HpETE) from arachidonic acid by the C-terminal lipoxygenase (LOX) domain. Despite the fact that the defined catalytically important residues of N-terminal catalase-related allene oxide synthase (cAOS) domain are also conserved in C. imbricata hydroperoxide lyase (cHPL), their reaction specificities differ. In the present study, we tested which of the amino acid substitutions around the active site of cHPL are responsible for a control in the reaction specificity. The possible candidates were determined via comparative sequence and structural analysis of the substrate channel and the heme region of coral cAOSs and C. imbricata cHPL. The amino acid replacements in cHPL—R56G, ME59-60LK, P65A, F150L, YS176-177NL, I357V, and SSSAGE155-160PVKEGD—with the corresponding residues of cAOS were conducted by site-directed mutagenesis. Although all these mutations influenced the catalytic efficiency of cHPL, only F150L and YS176-177NL substitutions caused a shift in the reaction specificity from HPL to AOS. The docking analysis of P. homomalla cAOS with 8R-HpETE substrate revealed that the Leu150 of cAOS interacts with the C5-C6 double bond and the Leu177 with the hydrophobic tail of 8R-HpETE. We propose that the corresponding residues in cHPL, Phe150 and Ser177, are involved in a proper coordination of the epoxy allylic radical intermediate necessary for aldehyde formation in the hydroperoxide lyase reaction.
Teder, T., Lõhelaid, H., & Samel, N. (2017). Structural and functional insights into the reaction specificity of catalase-related hydroperoxide lyase: A shift from lyase activity to allene oxide synthase by site-directed mutagenesis. PLoS ONE, 12(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185291