Optical aberrations due to the inhomogeneous refractive index of tissue degrade the resolution and brightness of images in deep-tissue imaging. We introduce a confocal fluorescence microscope with adaptive optics, which can correct aberrations based on direct wavefront measurements using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with a fluorescent bead used as a point source reference beacon. The results show a 4.3× improvement in the Strehl ratio and a 240% improvement in the signal intensity for fixed mouse tissues at depths of up to 100 μm.
Li, C., Lim, S., Braunewell, K. H., & Ames, J. B. (2016). Structure and calcium binding properties of a neuronal calcium-myristoyl switch protein, visinin-like protein 3. PLoS ONE, 11(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165921