More than twelve cultivars of Piper betle are reported in Sri Lanka but no chemical studies have been carried out on them. The present study describes the morphological, physic0 - chemical, chemical and antimicrobial activities of six main cultivars of P. betle Linn namely Galdalu, Malzamaneru, Kudamaneru, Ratadalu, Nagawalli and Malabulath. The chemical constituents identified in the essential oil of Malabulath by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) were different to those from the other cultivars. The major compound in Malabulath was allylpyrocatechol diacetate while that in all other cultivars categorized as common betel was safrole. Chemical compositions of the essential oil of the leaf, stalk, stem, fruit and root were different. The major compounds in the leaf, stem, stalk and root oil was safrole but in the fruit it was P- phellandrene. The composition of the oil also varied with maturity. The essential oil from common betel was active against Escherichia coli (NCTC 101481, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 106621, Staphylococcus eprdermidis (NCTC 4276), Staphylococcus aureus ( NCTC 8532 ), and Streptococcus pyrogens. The essential oil and the ethanol extract were also active against Cladosporium sp.
Arambewela, L., Kumaratunga, K. G. A., & Dias, K. (2005). Studies on Piper betle of Sri Lanka. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 33(2), 133–139. https://doi.org/10.4038/jnsfsr.v33i2.2343