A range of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, 1H liquid spectroscopy and T1 and T2 relaxation measurements, and microimaging, have been used to observe changes taking place within the bodies of live samples of Coccinella septempunctata, under a variety of conditions. NMR measurements showed that various organs could be seen and identified. It also showed that by changing the diet of the ladybird from aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)] to a standard artificial diet, major changes took place in the insects' tissues. By using a combination of all three techniques it was concluded that on changing the diet of C. septempunctata a mass of nutrient was built up within the insect's abdomen possibly in the same manner as happens before diapause. Changes in the response to NMR measurements were also seen after infection of C. septempunctata by the parasitoid wasp (Dinocampus coccinellae). Most significantly an image of the parasitoid larva could be seen within the body mass of the ladybird. It was concluded that NMR could become a major tool in the non-destructive study of insects not just as a means of studying anatomy but also to observe changes in the nature of body tissue.
Geoghegan, I. E., Chudek, J. A., Mackay, R. L., Lowe, C., Moritz, S., Mcnicol, R. J., … Majerus, M. E. N. (2000). Study of anatomical changes in Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) induced by diet and by infection with the larva of Dinocampus coccinellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) using magnetic resonance microimaging. European Journal of Entomology, 97(4), 457–461. https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2000.070