(1) Twelve cases of reading disability in school children are presented. An assessment of perceptual capacities and skills is reported and the findings are interpreted with reference to the developmental history and familial factors. (2) Reading disability did not occur in isolation in the group. Directional difficulties and difficulties in drawing and copying were characteristic of the group as a whole, but in no case was there an impairment of non-verbal form perception. (3) Confusion among letters was found in 50 per cent of the cases. Letters were confused on the basis of visual resemblance and not acoustic resemblance. This finding, together with the nature of the associated disabilities led to the interpretation that dyslexia in these cases is a disorder of visual perception, often occuring independent of any defect in oral-auditory language development. (4) Evidence of minimal brain damage was found in 58 per cent of the cases. (5) The association of dyslexia with sinistrality and behaviour disorder is discussed. © 1964.
Shankweiler, D. (1964). A study of developmental dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 1(4), 267–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(64)90021-1