Lupus nephritis (LN) of juvenile onset often has severe disease presentation. Despite aggressive induction therapy, up to 20% of patients with LN are resistant to initial therapy and up to 44% suffer a renal relapse. However, there is no consensus on an appropriate therapeutic regimen for refractory LN. We report a 13-year-old girl with recurrent LN who was not taking her medications. At age of 11 years, she was diagnosed with LN classified as International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) class IV G (A) + V. She was treated with prednisolone and MMF after nine methylprednisolone pulses. Nineteen months later, she was admitted to the hospital with generalized edema. Her symptoms were nephrotic syndrome and acute renal dysfunction. She received three methylprednisolone pulses for 3 days, followed by oral prednisolone and MMF. Twenty-seven days after the three methylprednisolone pulses, her acute renal dysfunction was improved, but the nephrotic syndrome was not improved. A second biopsy showed diffuse lupus nephritis classified as the predominant finding of ISN/RPS class V. We added tacrolimus to the MMF. Four months after adding tacrolimus, the nephrotic syndrome improved. We conclude that adding tacrolimus to the treatment regimen for LN resistant to MMF is effective.
Kise, T., Yoshimura, H., Fukuyama, S., & Uehara, M. (2015). Successful Treatment with Mycophenolate Mofetil and Tacrolimus in Juvenile Severe Lupus Nephritis. Case Reports in Pediatrics, 2015, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/651803