Motivated by the sigma model limit of multicomponent Ginzburg-Landau theory, a version of the Faddeev-Skyrme model is considered in which the scalar field is coupled dynamically to a one-form field called the supercurrent. This coupled model is investigated in the general setting where physical space M is an oriented Riemannian manifold and the target space N is a Kähler manifold, and its properties are compared with the usual, uncoupled Faddeev-Skyrme model. In the case N = S2, it is shown that supercurrent coupling destroys the familiar topological lower energy bound of Vakulenko and Kapitanski when M = R3, and the less familiar linear bound when M is a compact 3-manifold. Nonetheless, local energy minimizers may still exist. The first variation formula is derived and used to construct three families of static solutions of the model, all on compact domains. In particular, a coupled version of the unit charge hopfion on a three-sphere of arbitrary radius is found. The second variation formula is derived, and used to analyze the stability of some of these solutions. In particular, it is shown that, in contrast to the uncoupled model, the coupled unit hopfion on the three-sphere of radius R is unstable for all R. This gives an explicit, exact example of supercurrent coupling destabilizing a stable solution of the usual Faddeev-Skyrme model, and casts doubt on the conjecture of Babaev, Faddeev and Niemi that knot solitons should exist in the low energy regime of two-component superconductors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Speight, J. M. (2010). Supercurrent coupling in the Faddeev-Skyrme model. Journal of Geometry and Physics, 60(4), 599–610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomphys.2009.12.007