Synthetic fibers, mainly polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyamide (PA), polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polypropylene (PP), are the most widely used polymers in the textile industry. These fibers surpass the production of natural fibers with a market share of 54.4%. The advantages of these fibers are their high modulus and strength, stiffness, stretch or elasticity, wrinkle and abrasion resistances, relatively low cost, convenient processing, tailorable performance and easy recycling. The downside to synthetic fibers use are reduced wearing comfort, build-up of electrostatic charge, the tendency to pill, difficulties in finishing, poor soil release properties and low dyeability. These disadvantages are largely associated with their hydrophobic nature. To render their surfaces hydrophilic, various physical, chemical and bulk modification methods are employed to mimic the advantageous properties of their natural counterparts. This review is focused on the application of recent methods for the modification of synthetic textiles using physical methods (corona discharge, plasma, laser, electron beam and neutron irradiations), chemical methods (ozone-gas treatment, supercritical carbon dioxide technique, vapor deposition, surface grafting, enzymatic modification, sol-gel technique, layer-by-layer deposition of nano-materials, micro-encapsulation method and treatment with different reagents) and bulk modification methods by blending polymers with different compounds in extrusion to absorb different colorants.
Parvinzadeh, M., Willoughby, J., & Agrawal, P. (2012). Surface and Bulk Modification of Synthetic Textiles to Improve Dyeability. In Textile Dyeing. InTech. https://doi.org/10.5772/18706