Surgeon Training in Telerobotic Surgery via a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator

  • Li X
  • Alemzadeh H
  • Chen D
  • et al.
Citations of this article
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.


This work presents a software and hardware framework for a telerobotic surgery safety and motor skill training simulator. The aims are at providing trainees a comprehensive simulator for acquiring essential skills to perform telerobotic surgery. Existing commercial robotic surgery simulators lack features for safety training and optimal motion planning, which are critical factors in ensuring patient safety and efficiency in operation. In this work, we propose a hardware-in-the-loop simulator directly introducing these two features. The proposed simulator is built upon the Raven-II™ open source surgical robot, integrated with a physics engine and a safety hazard injection engine. Also, a Fast Marching Tree-based motion planning algorithm is used to help trainee learn the optimal instrument motion patterns. The main contributions of this work are (1) reproducing safety hazards events, related to da Vinci™ system, reported to the FDA MAUDE database, with a novel haptic feedback strategy to provide feedback to the operator when the underlying dynamics differ from the real robot’s states so that the operator will be aware and can mitigate the negative impact of the safety-critical events, and (2) using motion planner to generate semioptimal path in an interactive robotic surgery training environment.




Li, X., Alemzadeh, H., Chen, D., Kalbarczyk, Z., Iyer, R. K., & Kesavadas, T. (2017). Surgeon Training in Telerobotic Surgery via a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator. Journal of Healthcare Engineering, 2017, 1–13.

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free