Purpose: This retrospective review describes the surgical management of 51 patients after failed percutaneous renal artery angioplasty (F-PTRA). Methods: From January 1987 through June 1998, 51 consecutive patients underwent surgical repair of either atherosclerotic (32 patients) or fibromuscular dysplastic (FMD; 19 patients) renovascular vascular disease after F-PTRA. These patients form the basis of this report. Surgical repair was performed for hypertension (29 patients with atherosclerosis: mean blood pressure, 205 ± 34/110 ± 23 mm Hg; 18 patients with FMD: mean blood pressure, 194 ± 24/118 ± 18 mm Hg) or ischemic nephropathy (20 patients with atherosclerosis: mean serum creatinine level, 2.0 ± 0.8 mg/dL; three patients with FMD: mean serum creatinine level, 2.0 ± 1.1 mg/dL). Emergency operation was required in four patients for acute renal artery thrombosis (one patient with atherosclerosis, one patient with FMD), renal artery rupture (one patient with atherosclerosis), or infected pseudoaneurysm (one patient with atherosclerosis). Operative management, blood pressure and renal function response to operation, and dialysis-free survival rate were examined and compared with 487 patients (441 patients with atherosclerosis, 46 patients with FMD) treated by operation alone. Results: Among the patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease, there were three postoperative deaths (9.4%) after repair for F-PTRA. Secondary operative repair was associated with emergent repair or nephrectomy in 16% of cases, while more extensive renal artery exposure and more complex operative management was required in 50% of patients with atherosclerosis and 65% of patients with FMD repaired electively. Among the 28 operative survivors with hypertension and atherosclerotic renovascular disease, blood pressure benefit after F-PTRA was significantly lower when compared with patients with atherosclerosis who underwent treatment with operation only (57% vs 89%; P < .001). However, blood pressure benefit in the 19 patients with FMD did not differ (89% vs 96%). Among the 28 patients with atherosclerosis, preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR) as compared with postoperative EGFR was significantly increased (47.4 ± 4.2 mL/min/1.73m2 vs 56.6 ± 5.1 mL/min/1.73m2; P = .002). However, EGFR prior to PTRA was not significantly different from postoperative EGFR (51.6 ± 3.4 mL/min/1.73m2 vs 56.6 ± 4.9 mL/min/1.73m2; P = .121). As compared with patients with atherosclerosis who underwent treatment with operation alone, there was no difference in the dialysis-free survival rate. Conclusion: Operative repair after F-PTRA was altered in 59% of the patients with atherosclerosis and in 68% of patients with FMD. Blood pressure benefit for patients with FMD was unchanged after F- PTRA. However, the blood pressure benefit was significantly decreased among patients with atherosclerosis. Decreased EGFR after F-PTRA was recovered with operative renal artery repair. However, postoperative EGFR as compared with EGFR prior to PTRA was unchanged. Blood pressure and renal function response after F-PTRA for atherosclerotic renovascular disease warrants further study.
Wong, J. M., Hansen, K. J., Oskin, T. C., Craven, T. E., Plonk, J., Ligush J., J., … Naslund, T. C. (1999). Surgery after failed percutaneous renal artery angioplasty. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 30(3), 468–483. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0741-5214(99)70074-1