Several lines of evidence indicate that the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), which primarily resides in the choroid plexus (CP), plays a significant pathophysiological role not only in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, but also in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here we investigated how arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulates function of the BCSFB in the context of post-traumatic neuroinflammation. It has previously been shown that AVP exacerbates various forms of brain injury, but the mechanisms underlying this AVP action are poorly understood. Type 1A AVP receptor is highly expressed on the CP epithelium and the CP synthesizes AVP. Using the controlled cortical impact model of TBI, we demonstrated decreased post-traumatic production of proinflammatory mediators by the CP and reduced influx of inflammatory cells across the BCSFB in AVP-deficient Brattleboro rats when compared with Long-Evans rats, a parental strain for Brattleboro rats. Arginine vasopressin was also found to play an important role in post-traumatic activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the CP. In the CP epithelial cell cultures, AVP augmented the tumor necrosis factor-α- and interleukin-1β-dependent increase in synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, including neutrophil chemoattractants, an action largely dependent on the JNK signaling pathway. Under in vivo conditions, a selective JNK inhibitor decreased the post-traumatic production of neutrophil chemoattractants by the CP and reduced the influx of neutrophils across the BCSFB. These results provide evidence for the synergistic interactions between proinflammatory cytokines and AVP, a ligand for G protein-coupled receptors, and support a pathophysiological role of AVP in post-traumatic neuroinflammation.
Szmydynger-Chodobska, J., Gandy, J. R., Varone, A., Shan, R., & Chodobski, A. (2013). Synergistic interactions between cytokines and AVP at the blood-CSF barrier result in increased chemokine production and augmented influx of leukocytes after brain injury. PLoS ONE, 8(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079328