Background: The CombiMatrix ElectraSense® microarray is a highly multiplex, complementary metal oxide semiconductor with 12,544 electrodes that are individually addressable. This platform is commercially available as a custom DNA microarray; and, in this configuration, it has also been used to tether antibodies (Abs) specifically on electrodes using complementary DNA sequences conjugated to the Abs. Methodology/Principal Findings: An empirical method is described for developing and optimizing immunoassays on the CombiMatrix ElectraSense® microarray based upon targeted deposition of polypyrrole (Ppy) and capture Ab. This process was automated using instrumentation that can selectively apply a potential or current to individual electrodes and also measure current generated at the electrodes by an enzyme-enhanced electrochemical (ECD) reaction. By designating groups of electrodes on the array for different Ppy deposition conditions, we determined that the sensitivity and specificity of a sandwich immunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is influenced by the application of different voltages or currents and the application time. The sandwich immunoassay used a capture Ab adsorbed to the Ppy and a reporter Ab labeled for fluorescence detection or ECD, and results from these methods of detection were different. Conclusions/Significance: Using Ppy deposition conditions for optimum results, the lower limit of detection for SEB using the ECD assay was between 0.003 and 0.01 pg/ml, which represents an order of magnitude improvement over a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. In the absence of understanding the variables and complexities that affect assay performance, this highly multiplexed electrode array provided a rapid, high throughput, and empirical approach for developing a sensitive immunoassay.
Cooper, J., Yazvenko, N., Peyvan, K., Maurer, K., Taitt, C. R., Lyon, W., & Danley, D. L. (2010). Targeted deposition of antibodies on a multiplex CMOS microarray and optimization of a sensitive immunoassay using electrochemical detection. PLoS ONE, 5(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009781