© Ding et al. Background: TR4 nuclear receptor 4 (TR4) plays an important role in macrophages-associated foam cell formation of cardiovascular diseases and infiltrating macrophages are critical for prostate cancer (PCa) progression. However, the linkage of macrophages and TR4 and their impacts on PCa metastasis remains unclear. Results: Knocking-down TR4 in human PCa cells (C4-2, CWR22Rv1), but not in human macrophages cells (THP-1), led to suppress the macrophages infiltration to PCa cells. The consequences of such suppression of the recruitment of macrophages toward PCa then resulted in suppressing the PCa cell invasion. Mechanism dissection found that knocking-down TR4 in PCa cells suppressed metastasis-related genes including MMP2, with induction of TIMP-1. Interruption assays using TIMP-1 neutralizing antibody could then reverse TR4-macrophage-mediated PCa invasion. IHC staining showed higher TR4 level, more macrophage infiltration, lower TIMP-1 and stronger MMP2/MMP9 in tumor tissues of the Gleason score 5 + 4 patients compared with the Gleason score 3 + 3 patients. Conclusion: Targeting TR4 in prostate tumor microenvironment might represent a potential new therapeutic approach to better battle PCa metastasis.
Ding, X., Yang, D. R., Xia, L., Chen, B., Yu, S., Niu, Y., … Chang, C. (2015). Targeting TR4 nuclear receptor suppresses prostate cancer invasion via reduction of infiltrating macrophages with alteration of the TIMP-1/MMP2/MMP9 signals. Molecular Cancer, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12943-014-0281-1