Accurate prediction of groundwater table is important for the efficient management of groundwater resources. Despite being the most widely used tools for depicting the hydrological regime, numerical models suffer from formidable constraints, such as extensive data demanding, high computational cost and inevitable parameter uncertainty. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), in contrast, can make predictions on the basis of more easily accessible variables, rather than requiring explicit characterization of the physical systems and prior knowledge of the physical parameters. <br><br> This study applies ANN to predict the groundwater table in a swamp forest of Singapore. A standard multilayer perceptron (MLP) is selected, trained with the Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) algorithm. The inputs to the network are solely the surrounding reservoir levels and rainfall. The results reveal that ANN is able to produce accurate forecast with a leading time up to 7 days, whereas the performance slightly decreases when leading time increases.
Sun, Y., Wendi, D., Kim, D. E., & Liong, S. Y. (2016). Technical note: Application of artificial neural networks in groundwater table forecasting-a case study in a Singapore swamp forest. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 20(4), 1405–1412. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-20-1405-2016