BACKGROUND Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a serious complication of acute myocardial infarction, and the time of onset of CS has a potential role in influencing its prognosis. Limited contemporary data exist on this complication, however, especially from a population-based perspective. Our study objectives were to describe decade-long trends in the incidence, in-hospital mortality, and factors associated with the development of CS in 3 temporal contexts: (1) before hospital arrival for acute myocardial infarction (prehospital CS); (2) within 24 hours of hospitalization (early CS); and (3) ≥24 hours after hospitalization (late CS). METHODS AND RESULTS The study population consisted of 5782 patients with an acute myocardial infarction who were admitted to all 11 hospitals in central Massachusetts on a biennial basis between 2001 and 2011. The overall proportion of patients who developed CS was 5.2%. The proportion of patients with prehospital CS (1.6%) and late CS (1.5%) remained stable over time, whereas the proportion of patients with early CS declined from 2.2% in 2001-2003 to 1.2% in 2009-2011. In-hospital mortality for prehospital CS increased from 38.9% in 2001-2003 to 53.6% in 2009-2011, whereas in-hospital mortality for early and late CS decreased over time (35.9% and 64.7% in 2001-2003 to 15.8% and 39.1% in 2009-2011, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Development of prehospital and in-hospital CS was associated with poor short-term survival and the in-hospital death rates among those with prehospital CS increased over time. Interventions focused on preventing or treating prehospital and late CS are needed to improve in-hospital survival after acute myocardial infarction.
Nguyen, H. L., Yarzebski, J., Lessard, D., Gore, J. M., McManus, D. D., & Goldberg, R. J. (2017). Ten-year (2001-2011) trends in the incidence rates and short-term outcomes of early versus late onset cardiogenic shock after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction. Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(6). https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.005566