In this study, we evaluated the independent and combined effects of baseline circulating gonadal, anabolic hormones and adipokines on physical function in 107 frail, obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ), and older (≥65 yr) subjects. Our results showed significant positive correlations between circulating testosterone and insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) with knee flexion, knee extension, one-repetition maximum (1-RM), and peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 peak), while no correlation was observed with estradiol. Among the adipokines, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) and leptin negatively correlated with the modified physical performance testing (PPT), knee flexion, knee extension, 1-RM, and VO 2 peak. Interleukin-6 ( Il-6) negatively correlated with knee flexion and VO 2 peak and soluble tumor necrosis factors receptor-1 (sTNFr1) correlated with PPT, 1-RM, and VO 2 peak. Adiponectin correlated negatively with 1-RM. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, for PPT, sTNFr1 was the only independent predictor. Independent predictors included adiponectin, leptin, and testosterone for knee flexion; leptin and testosterone for knee extension; adiponectin, leptin, and testosterone for 1-RM; and IGF-1, IL-6, leptin, and testosterone for VO 2 peak. In conclusion, in frail obese older adults, circulating levels of testosterone, adiponectin, and leptin appear to be important predictors of physical strength and fitness, while inflammation appears to be a major determinant of physical frailty.
Aguirre, L. E., Jan, I. Z., Fowler, K., Waters, D. L., Villareal, D. T., & Armamento-Villareal, R. (2014). Testosterone and adipokines are determinants of physical performance, strength, and aerobic fitness in frail, obese, older adults. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/507395