Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is thought to regulate ductal and lobuloalveolar development as well as involution in the mammary gland. In an attempt to understand the role TGF-β plays during normal mammary gland development, and ultimately cancer, we previously generated transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative TGF-β type II receptor under control of the metallothionine promoter (MT-DNIIR). Upon stimulation with zinc sulfate, the transgene was expressed in the mammary stroma and resulted in an increase in ductal side branching. In this study, mammary gland transplantation experiments confirm that the increase in side branching observed was due to DNIIR activity in the stroma. Development during puberty through the end buds was also accelerated. Cbl is a multifunctional intracellular adaptor protein that regulates receptor tyrosine kinase ubiquitination and downregulation. Mice with a targeted disruption of the c-Cbl gene displayed increased side branching similar to that observed in MT-DNIIR mice; however, end bud development during puberty was normal. Transplantation experiments showed that the mammary stroma was responsible for the increased side branching observed in Cbl-null mice. Cbl expression was reduced in mammary glands from DNIIR mice compared to controls and TGF-β stimulated expression of Cbl in cultures of primary mammary fibroblasts. In addition, both TGF-β and Cbl regulated platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRα) expression in vivo and in isolated mammary fibroblasts. The hypothesis that TGF-β mediates the levels of PDGFRα protein via regulation of c-Cbl was tested. We conclude that TGF-β regulates PDGFRα in the mammary stroma via a c-Cbl-independent mechanism. Finally, the effects of PDGF-AA on branching were determined. Treatment in vivo with PDGF-AA did not affect branching making a functional interaction between TGF-β and PDGF unlikely. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crowley, M. R., Bowtell, D., & Serra, R. (2005). TGF-β, c-Cbl, and PDGFR-α the in mammary stroma. Developmental Biology, 279(1), 58–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.11.034