© 2017 Hasegawa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Combined estrogen-progestin preparations (CEPs) are associated with thromboembolic (TE) side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of TE using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database. Adverse events recorded from April 2004 to November 2014 in the JADER database were obtained from the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) website (www.pmda.go.jp). We calculated the reporting odds ratios (RORs) of suspected CEPs, analyzed the time-to-onset profile, and assessed the hazard type using Weibull shape parameter (WSP). Furthermore, we used the applied association rule mining technique to discover undetected relationships such as the possible risk factors. The total number of reported cases in the JADER contained was 338,224. The RORs (95% confidential interval, CI) of drospirenone combined with ethinyl estradiol (EE, Dro-EE), norethisterone with EE (Ne-EE), levonorgestrel with EE (Lev-EE), desogestrel with EE (Des-EE), and norgestrel with EE (Nor-E E) were 56.2 (44.3–71.4), 29.1 (23.5–35.9), 42.9 (32.3–57.0), 44.7 (32.7–61.1), and 38.6 (26.3–56.7), respectively. The medians (25%–75%) of the time-to-onset of Dro-EE, Ne-EE, Lev-EE, Des-EE, and Nor-EE were 150.0 (75.3–314.0), 128.0 (27.0–279.0), 204.0 (44.0–660.0), 142.0 (41.3–344.0), and 16.5 (8.8–32.0) days, respectively. The 95% CIs of the WSP-ß for Ne-EE, Lev-EE, and Nor-EE were lower and excluded 1. Association rule mining indicated that patients with anemia had a potential risk of developing a TE when using CEPs. Our results suggest that it is important to monitor patients administered CEP for TE. Careful observation is recommended, especially for those using Nor-EE, and this information may be useful for efficient therapeutic planning.
Hasegawa, S., Matsui, T., Hane, Y., Abe, J., Hatahira, H., Motooka, Y., … Nakamura, M. (2017). Thromboembolic adverse event study of combined estrogen-progestin preparations using Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. PLoS ONE, 12(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182045