Interest in Demand Response (DR) is increasing due to its potential to improve reliability and save costs for electricity systems. DR can provide a sustainable and cost-effective option for supply balancing, especially in a scenario with more volatile inflows from renewable energy sources. End-users can be incentivized to provide DR through time-based pricing in general and dynamic pricing in particular. This paper provides a theoretic framework and practice-oriented review of the status of DR in Europe, outlining the major challenges currently hampering further DR development. Important challenges involve the split-incentive issue for investments in enabling technologies, traditional market rules for flexibility that favor large generation units and the need for electricity market and network operation coordination.
Eid, C., Koliou, E., Valles, M., Reneses, J., & Hakvoort, R. (2016). Time-based pricing and electricity demand response: Existing barriers and next steps. Utilities Policy, 40, 15–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jup.2016.04.001