The antenna chlorophylls in higher plants can produce fluorescence that is blue-shifted (anti-Stokes-shifted) relative to the exciting light. Global analysis of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra resolves an ultrafast fluorescence emission component with a lifetime of about 15 ps which is attributed to exciton equilibration in the antenna. These results support the hypothesis that the overall exciton decay kinetics in PS I and PS II is trap-limited as suggested by us earlier. © 1989.
McCauley, S. W., Bittersmann, E., & Holzwarth, A. R. (1989). Time-resolved ultrafast blue-shifted fluorescence from pea chloroplasts. FEBS Letters, 249(2), 285–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(89)80642-8