BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns and trigger innate immunity leading to initiation of adaptive immunity. TLR-mediated activation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be a critical event in the initiation of cellular and humoral immune responses. Recent work however suggests that B cells also express TLRs, and that they can be activated via TLR ligands. However, whether such B cell activation occurs only on memory B cells, or whether it can also occur on truly naive B cells remains controversial. Furthermore, the expression and functional relevance of TLRs on distinct subsets of B cells, which are known to play differential roles in humoral responses is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of different TLRs in distinct subsets of murine B cells (naive, memory, follicular, marginal zone, B-1 and peyer's patch). In contrast to the reported restricted expression pattern of TLRs in human peripheral blood naive B cells, murine splenic naive B cells express a variety of TLRs with the exception of TLR5 and 8. Consistent with this relatively broad expression pattern, murine naive B cells proliferate and secrete antibody to a variety of TLR agonists in vitro, in the absence of B-cell receptor cross-linking. In addition, we observed subtle differences in the antibody secretion pattern of follicular, marginal zone, B-1 and peyer's patch B-cell subsets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus various B cell subsets, including truly naive B cells, express multiple TLRs, and signaling via such TLRs results in their robust proliferation and antibody secretion, even in the absence of dendritic cell activation, or T-cell help.
Gururajan, M., Jacob, J., & Pulendran, B. (2007). Toll-like receptor expression and responsiveness of distinct murine splenic and mucosal B-cell subsets. PLoS ONE, 2(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000863