The Toll-like receptor family recognizes mostly exogenous ligands like bacterial lipopolysaccharides or DNA and activates the inflammatory cell. Evidence is accumulating that these Toll-like receptors are important in cardiovascular pathologies. Recently, expression of Toll-like receptors in arterial and myocardial cells has been shown and mouse knockout and human studies on polymorphisms point to a role of Toll-like receptor 4 in neointima formation and atherosclerosis. It is now becoming clear that these receptors not only serve as receptors for pathogen-associated molecular patterns but are also involved in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular pathologies. © 2003 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
De Kleijn, D., & Pasterkamp, G. (2003, November 1). Toll-like receptors in cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6363(03)00348-1