Background: Carotid interventions are performed to reduce the cumulative risk of stroke. The success of the procedure is dependent upon maintaining low operative risk. This article reviews the current state of training for both carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). Methods: Medline searches were performed to identify articles with the combination of the following key words: carotid, endarterectomy, stent, training, assessment and simulation. Manual searches of the reference lists and related papers was conducted. Results: Training and assessment for CEA and CAS follows the traditional apprenticeship model. There is no formal training protocol or objective means of assessment for either carotid endarterectomy or stenting. Models and simulators to allow for training and assessment away from the operative theatre have been developed, and exist for both CEA and CAS. Conclusion: The technology exists to allow for both training and assessment of competency to take place in a controlled and objective environment for both CEA and CAS. The use of simulation needs to be robustly evaluated and assessed to both complement and augment existing training programs to ensure that the highest standards of care are maintained for treatment of carotid territory disease. Objective competency based training and assessment is no longer unattainable. Simulators augment this process and without them operative exposure is sporadic and crisis management infrequent. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Black, S. A., Pandey, V. A., & Wolfe, J. H. N. (2007, May). Training for Carotid Intervention: Preparing the Next Generation. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2006.12.018